⚠️ What is LAPL skill test ✈️
License skill test or simply skill test is a checkride with EASA Flight Examiner. It serves as verifcation of theoretical knowledge and subsequent flight with Flight Examiner. Sucessfully passed LAPL skill test grants the privileges iaw FCL.105 to act without remuneration as PIC in noncommercial operations. Applicants for the LAPL shall have fulfilled the requirements for the class or type of aircraft used in the LAPL skill test. Most common class rating used for LAPL(A) skill test is either single-engine SEP(land) or touring motor gliders - TMG.
It is important to mention that once obtained, the LAPL pilot license is valid permanently without necessity for revalidation or renewal. Only limiting factor is validity of the rating or certificates including the medical certificate.
EASA LAPL skill test in general
Applicants for an LAPL shall demonstrate through the completion of a skill test the ability to perform, as PIC on the aeroplanes. Demonstrated skills shall be LAPL(A) relevant procedures and manoeuvres with competency appropriate to the LAPL privileges granted. Applicants for the LAPL skill test shall have received flight instruction on the same class rating to be used for the skill test. The LAPL privileges will be restricted to the class used for the skill test until further extensions are endorsed on the licence. Further training may be required following any failed LAPL skill test or part thereof. There is no limit to the number of LAPL skill tests that may be attempted.
Scope of ✈️ LAPL skill test
EASA LAPL(A) skill test is subject to the paragraph FCL.125(c) and subsequently described in AMC1 FCL.120(b) and AMC1 FCL.125. LAPL skill test is divided into different Sections, representing all the different phases of flight.
Failure in any item of a section will cause the applicant to fail the entire LAPL skill test section. If the applicant fails only 1 section, he/she shall repeat only that section (partial pass of LAPL skill test). Failure in more than 1 section will cause the applicant to fail the entire test. When the LAPL skill test needs to be repeated, failure in any section, including those that have been passed on a previous attempt, will cause the applicant to fail the entire skill test. Failure to achieve a pass in all sections of the test in 2 attempts will require further practical training in flight school.
If the applicant chooses to terminate LAPL skill test for reasons considered inadequate by the Flight Examiner, the applicant should retake the entire skill test. If the test is terminated for reasons considered adequate by the Flight Examiner, only those sections not completed should be tested in a further flight. Any manoeuvre or procedure of the test may be repeated once by the applicant. The Flight Examiner may stop the skill test at any stage if it is considered that the applicant’s demonstration of flying skill requires a complete retest.
LAPL Exam candidate is required to fly the aircraft from a position where the PIC functions can be performed and to carry out the test as if there is no other crew member. Responsibility for the flight is allocated in accordance with national regulations.
The route to be flown for the LAPL skill test will be chosen by the Flight Examiner. The route should end at the aerodrome of departure or at another aerodrome.
The LAPL Exam candidate is responsible for:
- flight planning
- ensure that all equipment and documentation for the execution of the flight are on board.
The navigation section of the LAPL skill test should have a duration of at least 30 minutes which allows the pilot to demonstrate his ability to complete a route with at least two identified waypoints and may, as agreed between applicant and Flight Examiner, be flown as a separate skill test.
Exam candidate has to indicate to the Flight Examiner the checks and duties carried out, including the identification of radio facilities. Checks should be completed in accordance with the flight manual or the authorised checklist for the aeroplane or TMG on which the test is being taken. During pre-flight preparation for the skill test the applicant should be required to determine power settings and speeds. Performance data for take-off, approach and landing should be calculated by the applicant in compliance with the operations manual or flight manual for the aeroplane or TMG used.
We are authorised to provide an EASA skill test for initial obtain of the light aircraft pilot license in various variants of SEP(land) or TMG classes for example:
- Diamond DA-40 Star
- Piper PA-28
- Tecnam Sierra, Echo
- Cessna C152
- Let L-13SW
- and many many more
Content ✅ of LAPL skill test
LAPL skill test contents and sections set out in the AMC1 FCL.125 should be used for the skill test for the issue of a LAPL(A):
- SECTION 1 PRE-FLIGHT OPERATIONS AND DEPARTURE
- a. Use of checklist, airmanship, control of aeroplane or TMG by external visual reference, anti/de -icing procedures, etc. apply in all sections.
- b. Pre-flight documentation, NOTAM and weather briefing
- c. Mass and balance and performance calculation
- d. Aeroplane or TMG inspection and servicing
- e. Engine starting and after starting procedures
- f. Taxiing and aerodrome procedures, pre-take-off procedures
- g. Take-off and after take-off checks
- h. Aerodrome departure procedures
- ATC liaison: compliance
- SECTION 2 GENERAL - AIR WORK
- a. ATC liaison
- b. Straight and level flight, with speed changes
- c. Climbing:
- i. best rate of climb;
- ii. climbing turn
- iii. levelling off.
- d. Medium (30° bank) turns, look-out procedures and collision avoidance
- e. Steep (45 ° bank) turns
- f. Flight at critically low air speed with and without flaps
- g. Stalling:
- i. clean stall and recover with power;
- ii. approach to stall descending turn with bank angle 20 °, approach configuration;
- iii. approach to stall in landing configuration.
- h. Descending:
- i. with and without power;
- ii. descending turns (steep gliding turns);
- iii. evelling off.
- SECTION 3 - ENROUTE PROCEDURES
- a. Flight plan, dead reckoning and map reading
- b. Maintenance of altitude, heading and speed
- c. Orientation, airspace structure, timing and revision of ETAs, log keeping
- d. Diversion to alternate aerodrome (planning and implementation)
- e. Flight management (checks, fuel systems, carburettor icing, etc.)
- f. ATC liaison: compliance
- SECTION 4 - APPROACH AND LANDING PROCEDURES
- a. Aerodrome arrival procedures
- b. Collision avoidance (look-out procedures)
- c. Precision landing (short field landing) and crosswind, if suitable conditions available
- d. Flapless landing (if applicable)
- e. Approach to landing with idle power
- f. Touch and go
- g. Go-around from low height
- h. ATC liaison
- i. Actions after flight
- SECTION 5 - ABNORMAL AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
- a. Simulated engine failure after take-off
- b. * Simulated forced landing
- c. * Simulated precautionary landing
- d. Simulated emergencies
- e. Oral questions
* These items may be combined, at the discretion of the LAPL Flight Examiner.
Pass criteria ✅ of LAPL skill test
Conditions for pass of the LAPL(A) skill test are described in FCL125(c). The LAPL Exam candidate has to demonstrate the ability to:
- operate the aeroplane or TMG within its limitations;
- complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;
- exercise good judgment and airmanship;
- apply aeronautical knowledge;
- maintain control of the aeroplane or TMG at all times in such a manner that the successful outcome of a procedure or manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt.
The following limits are for general guidance. The Flight Examiner should make allowance for turbulent conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the aeroplane or TMG used:
- height: normal flight ± 150 ft
- take-off and approach +15/-5 knots
- all other flight regimes ± 15 knots
EASA LAPL(A) privileges
In accordance with. FCL.105.A the privileges of the holder of an LAPL(A) are to act as PIC on single-engine piston aeroplanes - land - SEP(land), single-engine piston aeroplanes-sea - SEP(sea) or TMG with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 2000 kg or less, carrying a maximum of 3 passengers, such that there are always a maximum of 4 persons on board of the aircraft.
Holders of a LAPL(A) shall carry passengers only if they have completed 10 hours of flight time as PIC on aeroplanes or TMG after the issuance of the LAPL licence. Holders of a LAPL(A) who previously held an ATPL(A), an MPL(A), a CPL(A) or a PPL(A), are exempted from the requirements for carrying the passengers.
In accordance with AMC1 FCL.105.A(b)(2) - in the case of previous MPL(A) holders, only those who extended their MPL(A) to include CPL privileges or PPL privileges in accordance with point FCL.405.A(b) may benefit from the exemption of point FCL.105.A(b)(2).
The privileges of an LAPL(A) shall be limited to the class and variant of aeroplanes or TMG in which the LAPL skill test was taken. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has completed in another class the requirements below:
- 3 hours of flight instruction, including:
- 10 dual take-offs and landings; and
- 10 supervised solo take-offs and landings.
- a class rating skill test to demonstrate an adequate level of practical skill in the new class. During this skill test, the applicant shall also demonstrate to the EASA examiner an adequate level of theoretical knowledge for the other class in the following subjects:
- Operational procedures;
- Flight performance and planning;
- Aircraft general knowledge.
LAPL(A) Differences training
In accordance with GM1 FCL.135.A - in order to extend the privileges of LAPL(A) license to another variant within the same class, the pilot shall either undertake differences training or do a familiarisation. The differences training shall be entered in the pilot’s logbook or into an equivalent record and be signed by the instructor. Most common class rating for LAPL skill test is SEP(Land), so lets approximate following example on SEP(land) class rating differences training.
Single-engine piston class rating authorizes the holder to fly on the specific variant on which the LAPL skill test with EASA examiner has been successfully passed on.
Eventhoug SEP(land) classrating constitutes all variants of single-engine piston aeroplane, you are not allowed to fly on all of them instantly. If you for example passed your SEP(land) skill test on Diamond DA20, before you are allowed to fly on e.g. Cessna 172, you have to fullfil the legal requirement by attending so-called differences training. That is so-called Transition to another variant of the same class. Together with variant-related differences training, also additional specific qualifications such as tailwheel, variable-pitch propeller, turbocharged engine and retractable undercarriage are trained.
LAPL differences training is required by FCL.135.A and further described by GM1 FCL.135.A. Pilots shall complete differences training or familiarisation training in order to extend their privileges to another variant of aircraft within the SEP(land) class rating. In the case of variants within a class rating, the differences training or familiarisation training shall include the relevant elements defined in the OSD, if exists for particular variant.
The differences training shall be conducted either by:
- an EASA flight school
- an appropriately qualified instructor unless otherwise provided in the OSD.
When extending the privileges of an SEP aeroplane class rating to a variant with another type of engine, as specified in Article 2(8a) of Part FCL, the differences training shall consist of dual flight instruction and theoretical knowledge instruction which shall include, with regard to that other type of engine and related aircraft systems, at least all of the following:
- aircraft general knowledge;
- operational procedures;
- flight performance and planning.
Differences training vz familiarization training
Differences training requires the acquisition of additional knowledge and training on an appropriate training device or the single-engine aircraft. Familiarisation training requires the acquisition of additional knowledge delivered by either selfstudy, CBT or instructor.
➡️ Validity of differences training
Differences training is required anytime when transition to aircraft requried additional qualification is required. Whilst the familiarization training is required for the transition to the variants within similar qualification.
For example transitioning from Cessna 152 to Diamond DA40D G1000 equipped by Lycoming. This transition requires the differences training with additional qualification such as:
- variable pitch propeller
- EFIS (G1000)
- turbo-charged engine
- single power lever control
Transition from Diamond DA40D G1000 to Diamond DA20 requires familiarization training. Reason is that you are already a holder of class rating SEP(land) and additional qualification for flying variable pitch propeller. Neverthless operators may apply strict rules.
Differences training endorsement ✅
The differences training or the proficiency check in that variant shall be entered in the pilots’ logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor or EASA examiner as appropriate.