⚠️ What is PPL skill test ✈️
License skill test or simply skill test is a checkride with EASA Flight Examiner. It serves as verifcation of theoretical knowledge and subsequent flight with Flight Examiner. Sucessfully passed PPL skill test grants the privileges iaw FCL.205 and FCL.205.A to act without remuneration as PIC or co-pilots of aeroplanes or TMGs engaged in non-commercial operations and to exercise all privileges of holders of an PPL(A). Applicants for the PPL shall have fulfilled the requirements for the class or type of aircraft used in the PPL skill test. Most common class rating used for PPL(A) skill test is either single-engine SEP(land).
It is important to mention that once obtained, the private pilot license is valid permanently without necessity for revalidation or renewal. Only limiting factor is validity of the rating or certificates including the medical certificate.
EASA PPL skill test in general
Applicants for an PPL shall demonstrate through the completion of a skill test the ability to perform, as PIC on the aeroplanes. Demonstrated skills shall be PPL(A) relevant procedures and manoeuvres with competency appropriate to the PPL privileges granted. Applicants for the PPL skill test shall have received flight instruction on the same class rating to be used for the PPL skill test. Further training in. flight school may be required following any failed PPL skill test or part thereof. There should be no limit to the number of PPL skill tests that may be attempted.
If the PPL applicant chooses to terminate a PPL skill test for reasons considered inadequate by the Flight Examiner, the applicant should retake the entire PPL skill test. If the test is terminated for reasons considered adequate by the Flight Examiner, only those sections not completed should be tested in a further flight.
Any manoeuvre or procedure of the test may be repeated once by the applicant. The Flight Examiner may stop the test at any stage if it is considered that the applicant’s demonstration of flying skill requires a complete retest. An applicant should be required to fly the aircraft from a position where the PIC functions can be performed and to carry out the test as if there is no other crew member. Responsibility for the flight should be allocated in accordance with national regulations.
Scope of ✈️ PPL skill test
The route to be flown for the navigation test should be chosen by the Flight Examiner. The route may end at the aerodrome of departure or at another aerodrome. The applicant should be responsible for the flight planning and should ensure that all equipment and documentation for the execution of the flight are on board. The navigation section of the skill test should have a duration that allows the pilot to demonstrate his/her ability to complete a route with at least three identified waypoints and may, as agreed between the applicant and Flight Examiner, be flown as a separate test.
An applicant should indicate to the Flight Examiner the checks and duties carried out, including the identification of radio facilities. Checks should be completed in accordance with the authorised checklist for the aeroplane on which the skill test is being taken. During pre-flight preparation for the test the applicant should be required to determine power settings and speeds. Performance data for take-off, approach and landing should be calculated by the applicant in compliance with the operations manual or flight manual for the aeroplane used.
We are authorised to provide an EASAskill test for initial obtain of the private pilot license in various variants of SEP(land) classes for example:
- Diamond DA-40 Star
- Piper PA-28
- Tecnam Sierra, Echo
- Cessna C152, C172
- and many many more
Content ✅ of PPL skill test
The PPL skill test contents and sections set out in AMC1 FCL.235(e) to be used for the skill test for the issue of a PPL(A) on single engine and multi engine aeroplanes or on TMGs.
- SECTION 1 PRE-FLIGHT OPERATIONS AND DEPARTURE (Use of checklist, airmanship, control of aeroplane by external visual reference, anti/de -icing procedures, etc. apply in all sections)
- a. Pre-flight documentation, NOTAM and weather briefing
- b. Mass and balance and performance calculation
- c. Aeroplane inspection and servicing
- d. Engine starting and after starting procedures
- e. Taxiing and aerodrome procedures, pre-take-off procedures
- f. Take-off and after take-off checks
- g. Aerodrome departure procedures
- h. ATC compliance and R/T procedures
- SECTION 2 - GENERAL AIRWORK
- a. ATC compliance and R/T procedures
- b. Straight and level flight, with speed changes
- c. Climbing:
- i. best rate of climb;
- ii. climbing turns;
- iii. levelling off.
- d. Medium (30 ° bank) turns
- e. Steep (45 ° bank) turns (including recognition and recovery from a spiral dive)
- f. Flight at critically low air speed with and without flaps
- g. Stalling:
- i. clean stall and recover with power;
- ii. approach to stall descending turn with bank angle 20°, approach configuration;
- iii. approach to stall in landing configuration.
- h. Descending:
- i. with and without power;
- ii. descending turns (steep gliding turns);
- iii. levelling off.
- SECTION 3 - ENROUTE PROCEDURES
- a. Flight plan, dead reckoning and map reading
- b. Maintenance of altitude, heading and speed
- c. Orientation, timing and revision of ETAs and log keeping
- d. Diversion to alternate aerodrome (planning and implementation)
- e. Use of radio navigation aids
- f. Basic instrument flying check (180° turn in simulated IMC)
- g. Flight management (checks, fuel systems and carburettor icing, etc.)
- h. ATC compliance and R/T procedures
- SECTION 4 - APPROACH AND LANDING PROCEDURES
- a. Aerodrome arrival procedures
- b. * Precision landing (short field landing), crosswind, if suitable conditions available
- c. * Flapless landing
- d. * Approach to landing with idle power (SE only)
- e. Touch and go
- f. Go-around from low height
- g. ATC compliance and R/T procedures
- h. Actions after flight
- SECTION 5 ABNORMAL AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
- a. Simulated engine failure after take-off (SE only)
- b. * Simulated forced landing (SE only)
- c. Simulated precautionary landing (SE only)
- d. Simulated emergencies
- e. Oral questions
- SECTION 6 - SIMULATED ASYMMETRIC FLIGHT AND RELEVANT CLASS OR TYPE ITEMS
- a. Simulated engine failure during take-off (at a safe altitude unless carried out in an FFS)
- b. Asymmetric approach and go-around
- c. Asymmetric approach and full stop landing
- d. Engine shutdown and restart
- e. ATC compliance, R/T procedures or airmanship
- f. As determined by the FE: any relevant items of the class or type rating skill test to include, if applicable:
- i. aeroplane systems including handling of auto pilot;
- ii. operation of pressurisation system;
- iii. use of de-icing and anti-icing system.
- g. Oral questions
* These items may be combined, at the discretion of the Flight Examiner.
Pass criteria ✅ of PPL skill test
Conditions for pass of the PPL(A) skill test are described in FCL.125(c). The PPL Exam candidate has to demonstrate the ability to:
- operate the aeroplane within its limitations;
- complete all manoeuvres with smoothness and accuracy;
- exercise good judgment and airmanship;
- apply aeronautical knowledge;
- maintain control of the aeroplane at all times in such a manner that the successful outcome of a procedure or manoeuvre is never seriously in doubt.
The following limits are for general guidance. The Flight Examiner should make allowance for turbulent conditions and the handling qualities and performance of the aeroplane used:
- normal flight ± 150 ft
- with simulated engine failure ± 200 ft (if ME aeroplane is used)
- heading or tracking of radio aids:
- normal flight ± 10°
- with simulated engine failure ± 15° (if ME aeroplane is used)
- take-off and approach +15/–5 knots
- all other flight regimes ± 15 knots
EASA PPL(A) privileges
In accordance with. FCL.205.A and FCL.205 the privileges of the holders of a PPL(A) are to act without remuneration as PIC or co-pilots of aeroplanes or TMGs engaged in non-commercial operations and to exercise all privileges of holders of an LAPL(A).
The holder of a PPL(A) with instructor or examiner privileges may receive remuneration for:
- the provision of flight instruction for the LAPL(A) or PPL(A);
- the conduct of skill tests and proficiency checks for these licences;
- the training, testing and checking for the ratings or certificates attached to this licence.
Single-engine piston class rating obtained together with your PPL(A) license authorizes the holder to fly on the specific variant on which the skill test with EASA examiner has been successfully passed on.
Eventhoug SEP(land) classrating constitutes all variants of single-engine piston aeroplane, you are not allowed to fly on all of them instantly. If you for example passed your SEP(land) skill test on Diamond DA20, before you are allowed to fly on e.g. Cessna 172, you have to fullfil the legal requirement by attending so-called differences training. That is so-called Transition to another variant of the same class. Together with variant-related differences training, also additional specific qualifications such as tailwheel, variable-pitch propeller, turbocharged engine and retractable undercarriage are trained.
EASA differences training is required by FCL.710(b) and by EASA classrating endorsments list. Pilots shall complete differences training or familiarisation training in order to extend their privileges to another variant of aircraft within the SEP(land) class rating. In the case of variants within a class rating, the differences training or familiarisation training shall include the relevant elements defined in the OSD, if exists for particular variant.
The differences training shall be conducted either by:
- an EASA flight school
- an appropriately qualified instructor unless otherwise provided in the OSD.
Differences training vz familiarization training
Differences training requires the acquisition of additional knowledge and training on an appropriate training device or the single-engine aircraft. Familiarisation training requires the acquisition of additional knowledge delivered by either selfstudy, CBT or instructor.
➡️ Validity of differences training
Differences training is required anytime when transition to aircraft requried additional qualification is required. Whilst the familiarization training is required for the transition to the variants within similar qualification.
For example transitioning from Cessna 152 to Diamond DA40D G1000 equipped by Lycoming. This transition requires the differences training with additional qualification such as:
- variable pitch propeller
- EFIS (G1000)
- turbo-charged engine
- single power lever control
Transition from Diamond DA40D G1000 to Diamond DA20 requires familiarization training. Reason is that you are already a holder of class rating SEP(land) and additional qualification for flying variable pitch propeller. Neverthless operators may apply strict rules.
Differences training endorsement ✅
The differences training or the proficiency check in that variant shall be entered in the pilots’ logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor or EASA examiner as appropriate.